nam quốc sơn hà nam đế cư

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Nam quốc thụi hà
Vietnamese alphabetNam quốc thụi hà
Chữ Hán南國山河
Recitation of Nam quốc thụi hà - 1076 version

Nam quốc thụi hà (chữ Hán: 南國山河, lit.'Mountains and Rivers of the Southern Country') is a famous 10th- lớn 11th-century Vietnamese patriotic poem. Dubbed "Vietnam's first Declaration of Independence",[1] it asserts the sovereignty of Vietnam's rulers over its lands. The poem was first dictated lớn be read aloud before and during battles lớn boost army morale and nationalism when Vietnam under Lê Đại Hành and Lý Thường Kiệt fought against two invasions by Song dynasty in 981 and 1075–1076 and would become became an emblematic hymn in the early independence wars.[2] The poem is one of the best-known pieces of Vietnamese literature.[3]

The poem's exact authorship, origin, and style of writing are still controversial. According lớn K.W. Taylor, the trương mục of the poem comes from the 14th-century Buddhist scripture Thiền uyển tập luyện anh and if the story of the poem is true, then the poem could not have been sung in the khuông it currently exists today. The poem is written in Classical Chinese in the khuông of an oracle following Tang-style rules that would have been hard lớn understand for Viet soldiers. It would also be the only literary work known lớn have been written by Lý Thường Kiệt, who was not a literary man. The story of singing in temples lớn boost military morale prior lớn battle is plausible, but whether or not it was this specific poem that was sung cannot be answered. It is possible that it was written after the sự kiện.[4][5]

981 version[edit]

This version is included in Lĩnh Nam chích tai ác ("Selection of Strange Tales from Lingnan") and dated lớn the Song–Đại Cồ Việt war:[6][non-primary source needed]

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Chữ Hán Sino-Vietnamese English Literal Translation
Nam quốc thụi hà Nam đế cư,
Hoàng thiên dĩ tấp tểnh bên trên thiên thư.
Như hà Bắc lỗ lai xâm lăng,
Bạch nhận phiên trở thành huỷ trúc dư.
The Southern country's mountains and rivers the Southern Emperor inhabits.
The August Heaven hath willed it ví in the Heavenly Book.
Why vì thế you Northern bandits come lớn invade?
The swinging gleaming blades will cleave you into cloven bamboo chips!

1076 version[edit]

This version is included in Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư ("Complete Historical Annals of Great Viet") and dated lớn the Song–Đại Việt war:[7][non-primary source needed]

Chữ Hán Sino-Vietnamese[8] Vietnamese translation[a][9] Chữ Nôm English Literal Translation[10] English Poetic Translation[11]
Nam quốc thụi hà nam giới đế cư
Tiệt nhiên tấp tểnh phận bên trên thiên thư
Như hà nghịch tặc lỗ lai xâm phạm
Nhữ đẳng hành khan thủ bại hỏng.
Sông núi nước Nam, vua Nam ở
Rành rành tấp tểnh phận ở sách trời.
Cớ sao lũ giặc thanh lịch xâm phạm,
Chúng bây có khả năng sẽ bị tiến công tơi bời.


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The Southern country's mountains and rivers the Southern Emperor inhabits.
The separation is natural and allotted in Heaven's Book.
If the bandits come lớn trespass it,
You shall, in doing that, see yourselves lớn be handed with failure and shame!
O'er the hills and streams of southern clime [a] southern monarch reigns;
His sov'reign state On bamboo slip engraved by Time [t]he writ of Heav'n ordains
Dare you, 'gainst Fate [t]hrust in, his turbulence lớn quell?
Beware! - For you will sound the knell.

See also[edit]

  • Song–Đại Cồ Việt war
  • Song–Đại Việt War
  • Vietnamese Declarations of Independence
  • Hịch tướng tá sĩ, a 13th-century hymn by Trần Hưng Đạo while fighting against the Mongol invasions.



  1. ^ Lê Văn Quân Ph.D. (2006). "Bài thơ NAM QUỐC SƠN HÀ là bạn dạng tuyên ngôn song lập thứ nhất của nước nước ta tao (The Poem 'Southern Country's Mountains and Rivers' is the first declaration of independence of Vietnam our country" Tạp chí Hán Nôm (Han-Nom Magazine), 1 (74); p. 3-8. Online version (in Vietnamese)
  2. ^ Patricia M. Pelley Postcolonial Vietnam: New Histories of the National Past 2002 Page 268 "The relevant works are Nam quốc thụi ha, Lý Thường Kiệt's famous affirmation of Vietnamese identity; Hịch tướng tá sĩ, the plea from Trần Hưng Ðạo lớn fight against the Mongols; Quốc ngữ thi đua tập luyện, Chu Văn An's collection of poems in the national language..."
  3. ^ Nguyễn Đức Sự Some Features on Vietnamese Buddhism in the Lý Dynasty Religious Studies Review, No. 02-2010 Institute of Religious Studies, Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences 2011 "Besides the well-known works of celebrities and of the Lý court as Chiếu dời đô (Royal edict on the transfer of the capital), Nam quốc thụi hà (Mountains and Rivers of the empire of the South), Văn lộ phụ vương khi tiến công trống rỗng, Di chiếu khi lâm công cộng (King's last will at point of death), etc. There were many Zen poems in the literature of the Lý dynasty. Almost poets and writers in the Lý dynasty were Zen masters."
  4. ^ Taylor 2013, p. 85.
  5. ^ Essays on Literature and Society in Southeast Asia 1981 Page 305 "The "Nam-quốc sơn-hà" poem had the khuông of an oracle"
  6. ^ LNCQ, "The Story about the Two Gods Dragon's Eyes and Moonlike"
  7. ^ ĐVSKTT, "Basic Annals - Volume 3 - Emperor Renzong"
  8. ^ James Anderson The Rebel Den of Nùng Trí Cao: Loyalty and Identity 2007 Page 214 "The Vietnamese text reads: " , Tiệt nhiên tấp tểnh phận bên trên thiên thư..."
  9. ^ Trần Nguyên Thạch (2016-2017) "Attempts lớn re-translate the poem Nam quốc thụi hà" in Ho Chi Minh city's Literature and Art Weekly Magazine, Issue 522. online version (in Vietnamese)
  10. ^ Vuving, Alexander L. (June 2000). "The References of Vietnamese States and the Mechanisms of World Formation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-18.
  11. ^ Lyon, Peter. "Government and Revolution in Vietnam". Government and Opposition. vol. 3, no. 3. Summer 1968, p. 392.
  • Taylor, K. W. (2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-24435-1.

External links[edit]

  • (in Vietnamese)Lý Thường Kiệt với bài bác thơ "Nam quốc thụi hà"